Inorganic compounds removal
Inorganic compounds are produced as a result of different physico-chemical phenomena by the fusion of virtually every known chemical element. The main difference with organic compounds is that they do not have carbon or its derivatives as their main element.
We have an extensive experience in the removal of inorganic compounds. One of the most effective technologies for the removal of a wide range of inorganic compounds are scrubbers, which carry out a physico-chemical process to eliminate acid or alkaline pollutants. Wet scrubbers use liquid solutions to absorb and remove gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen chloride (HCl).
At Condorchem we offer different types of Scrubbers:
- Perforated-plate columns or conteract covers.
- Traditional packed columns and special in co-corrent and countercurrent.
- Aerosol washing columns.
The purpose of this method is to transfer most of the gaseous contaminants to a liquid state. However, this process is subject to limitations due to the physical-chemical characteristics of the pollutant, liquid absorbent and, especially, mutual solubility.
For the absorption process to perform effectively, two important conditions need to be met:
- Both liquid and contaminant substances must be compatible, i.e. they must have a high enough solubility parameter value.
- The availability of a wide contact surface and the exchange, where transfer of the contaminant to the absorbent liquid may be possible.
There are technologies that offer great performance and efficiency for the removal of certain inorganic contaminants, among which it is worth mentioning
- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): SCR is used to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by injecting ammonia or urea into flue gases. These react with the NOx to form harmless nitrogen and water vapor.
- Filters are a widely employed technology for air pollution control, particularly for capturing particulate matter and certain types of inorganic compounds. Different types of filters, such as fabric Filter baghouses, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) Filters, or electrostatic precipitators (ESP), can be used depending on the specific characteristics of the inorganic compounds and the air emissions.
- Activated Carbon Adsorption: Activated carbon can adsorb a range of pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and some inorganic compounds, from air streams.
What are inorganic compounds emissions
Inorganic compound emissions refer to the release of various chemical substances into the environment that are composed of a wide range of elements other than carbon and hydrogen. These compounds can originate from natural processes, human activities, and industrial sources.
Regulatory measures and efforts to reduce inorganic compounds emissions are crucial for mitigating their adverse effects on air and water quality and preventing their impact on human health. Inorganic compounds encompass different substances, each with its own environmental and health implications:
- Nitrogen Compounds include nitrogen oxides (NOx) such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which are produced primarily from combustion processes in vehicles, power plants, and industrial facilities. They contribute to air pollution and can lead to the formation of smog and acid rain.
- Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major inorganic compound emitted from the burning of fossil fuels, especially coal and oil. It contributes to air pollution and can lead to the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which is a component of acid rain.
- Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an inorganic compound that is released during incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. It is a colorless and odorless gas that can be harmful to human health, particularly at high concentrations.
- Inorganic heavy metals such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) can be released into the environment from industrial processes, mining activities, and natural sources. These metals are toxic to humans and ecosystems and can accumulate in the food chain.
- Ammonia is released from agricultural activities, such as livestock production and fertilizer use. It can contribute to air and water pollution and has implications for ecosystem health.
- Chlorine-containing compounds, such as chlorine gas (Cl2) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), have been used in various industrial processes. Chlorine gas is highly reactive and toxic, while CFCs have been linked to ozone depletion.
- Inorganic particulate matter includes fine particles and aerosols composed of various elements and compounds, such as sulfates, nitrates, and metals. These particles can contribute to air pollution and have implications for respiratory and cardiovascular health.
- Ozone is composed of oxygen atoms, but it is considered an inorganic compound when found in the atmosphere. Ground-level ozone is a component of smog and can be harmful to human health and vegetation.